How to make out a word by composition?

Parsing words by composition is called morphemic analysis. It is one of the most complex types of any analytical work carried out with lexical units of the Russian language. Morphemes are beginning to learn in elementary school, but even high school students often have problems with defining them within words. In order to facilitate the task itself, it is worth figuring out how to make out a word by its composition.

Morpheme definition

First of all, you should read the definitions themselves of the main morphemes of the Russian language. As a rule, the school learn the prefix, the root, the suffix and the ending. The root is the main part of a word that has a general meaning for all words with the same root. This morpheme is the only mandatory (with the exception of some words), since there are no words in the Russian language that do not contain a root. The prefix and suffix are used to form new words. Before the root is a prefix. The suffix is ​​located after the root. Together with the root of the word, they form the basis of the word (form-forming suffixes do not form the basis of the word).It should be noted that the presence of a suffix or prefix can change the meaning originally laid by the root. Example: "raspberry - raspberry" or "go - they will eat - they will move in". Sometimes a word can contain several suffixes or prefixes. Example: in the word "spoiled" suffixes are "ova" and "l." The end is the part that serves to form the connection of words in a sentence and new forms of the word. The end can not change the original lexical meaning, as well as form a new semantic unit. In addition, the ending is zero. Example: banana, pain, watermelon.

How to make out a word by its composition: instruction

First of all, the analysis of the word in composition begins with the definition of the part of speech to which the word to be analyzed belongs. This could be, for example, an adjective or a noun, a verb. Then you need to determine whether it is mutable. To do this, try to change the word by gender, number, case. If the word turned out to be changeable, then next to it you need to write down its original form. Example: “jar - bank”.

  • Ending. Then you need to highlight the ending.To do this, you must change the word several times by gender, number, or case. Example: "banana - no banana - go for a banana." Changing letters at the end of the word and will be the end. So, in the word "banana" the ending is zero.
  • The basis. Now we should mark the basis of the word. As a rule, it should be underlined by a straight line from the bottom of the word from the first letter to the end. If there are formative suffixes in a word, then they, like the ending, do not form the basis of the word. In Russian, many words consist of only one basis. Example: yesterday, the highway.
  • Console. Now you need to find the prefix. To do this, pick the same words. Example: in the verb "drive up", the following modified variants of words help to highlight the prefix "under": "to move - to call in - to move out - to go".
  • Suffix. The suffix is ​​determined as follows. It is necessary to remove this morpheme from the word and make sure that the new lexical unit exists in Russian. Example: in the word "locker" there is a suffix "chick". But if you cross it out, you get an independent noun "cabinet".
  • Root. Doing analysis of the word in composition, in the last turn, the root of the word should be highlighted. In Russian, it can have a different look in the same words.In the root can often change the letters or even "disappear." Example: “went - came”, “black is black”. In order to determine the root of a word, it is necessary to pick up related words, and then find a common part in them. Example: "scaffolding - bridge - bridge". In this case, the root of the word is the root "bridge".

Well, now you know how to make out a word by its composition. But in order to do it with confidence, theory alone is not enough. Here the main thing is practice. The more you understand the words of the composition, the faster you learn how to make a morphological analysis. Take any textbook on the Russian language and start right now!


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