Honeysuckle: many-sided beauty, can not help but like!
Honeysuckle is a unique plant that is increasingly found in gardens and parks. Shrubs are planted as an ornamental fence, and edible varieties, and as a berry crop. Fruits are universal, jelly, jam, liqueurs and liqueurs are prepared from them, they are frozen and dried. All parts of the plant are widely used in traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of various diseases.
What is honeysuckle?
Honeysuckle is a perennial ornamental and berry shrub with a lush crown. The name (Lonicera) "honeysuckle" is obliged to the famous physicist and botanist Adam Loniceur, who lived in the 14th century. More common in the northern hemisphere, in areas with a temperate climate. The plant can have both straight and creeping or climbing stem. Regardless of the species, it blooms early, filling the air with a charming aroma, which attracts a large number of bees.
Where and for what is used
Every year the honeysuckle wins more and more new garden and garden plots.She has something to love! It blooms in May, one of the first, pleases with delicate buds with an almond-honey smell, and the fruits ripen before other plants.
Appreciate her for ease of care, stable yields, especially in areas with late spring and short summer, where nature does not indulge in a special variety of fruits. It easily endures harsh winters, and even during flowering the frost at -5 does not affect the good harvest, which is unacceptable for other fruit.
Decorative climbing varieties are used for vertical gardening arbors, pergolas and arches. From the plants with a lush and dense crown form fragrant hedges, blooming almost to frost.
Culinary specialists love berries for their peculiar taste, aroma and a large amount of pectin substances, thanks to which dense jelly is obtained from it, used as a harmless dye. It is good in jam, in compote, you can dry it, freeze, rub with sugar, make liqueurs and wine, and what a delicious pie filling is obtained!
Widely used in folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, anemia, hypertension, skin diseases, respiratory system and others.In honeysuckle, not only berries are rich in healing, which, according to the content of vitamin C, give odds to lemon, but also all parts: leaves, bark, flowers.
Varieties of plants
More often in the gardens they plant honeysuckle, which has edible berries. Favorite varieties of Russians: Pavlovskaya, Borel, Blue Spindle, Amphora, Gzhelka, Vasyuganskaya, Gerda, Sinichka, Nymph Blue Eyes, Bluebird, Bochkarskaya, Leningrad Giant, Cinderella, Kamchadalka and Chernichka. If you wish, you can easily find a detailed description and reviews about each of them. There are varieties of more new breeding, but they can bring in the frosty winter, and these have already been tested over the years by several generations of gardeners. Varieties differ in the maturity of the harvest, in the height of the bushes and in the shape of the branches, in the taste of berries.
- Gourmand- the bush is compact, the yield is high, but the berries are not very large, weighing about 0.7 g. Fruits without bitterness, are characterized by low flaking. The variety is suitable for hedges. Plant near her "Nymph" and "Nizhny Novgorod early" for pollination.
- Omega- also belongs to undersized varieties with a rounded crown, but the berries are larger and reach weights of up to 1 g. They cannot “boast” with high yields, but the berries practically do not crumble. Fruits without bitterness, sweet and sour, the plant is planted as a hedge.
- Nymph- compact bush with an oval crown and dark green leaves. Berries are large by 3 cm, and weighing up to 1.2 g, with careful care, each bush pleases with a yield of 1.5 kg. The berries have a pleasant sweetish taste, slightly sour. Planted next to pollination with "Violet", "Omega", "Blue Spindle".
- Leningrad giant- The name says about the place of selection and the size of the fruit. The starting material for breeding was the seeds of Kamchatka endemic. The berries ripen early, can reach up to 4 cm, but more often - 3 cm, have a dense skin, the yield of the bush reaches 3 kg. The peculiarity of the variety, in addition to the size of the berries, is their arrangement in clusters, which speeds up the harvest. It tastes fruit without sourness and bitterness, does not fall off the bushes for a long time.
- Volkhov- bush with oval dense crown, tall with thick shoots. Name received from the river flowing in the Leningrad region, where he was withdrawn. It belongs to varieties with an average ripening period, fruits appear by the middle of June. Berries reach a length of 1.7 cm, and the weight of one - up to 0.8 g, they have a rather dense skin, the taste is sweet. Harvest to one and a half to two kilograms per bush.Drops are insignificant, pollinated by bumblebees, planted next to other varieties, for example: Azure, Pavlovskaya. It tolerates severe frost.
- Honeysuckle Tatar- ornamental shrub, grows up to 2.5 meters, frost-resistant, drought-resistant, with a hairstyle, you can set the crown in any shape. A plant of 3-4 years old begins to bloom from May-June, bright berries begin to ripen in July-September, they are inedible. Suitable as a decorative fence.
- Caprifol- the fragrant honeysuckle, most widespread in landscape design, its curling stem can reach 6 meters. In translation it means "goat leaf", grows to a size of 10 cm in length and 4 cm in width. Beautiful large flowers of pink or cream color with a delicate aroma, which is enhanced by the evening. They make an alcohol tincture of them, and from the leaves - a decoction, which gargle with a sore throat and wash their heads with hair loss, it helps with colic.
Honeysuckle berries, regardless of the species, ripen before other fruit crops. Some bloom at the same time as her, but give fruits later. Berries of different plant species in maturity may vary by a month and a half.
- Sinichka- relatively young variety, bred in Moscow in 1998. А.G. Kuklina and A.K. Skvortsov, staff of the Main Botanical Garden. It is characterized by abundant fruiting, it is not showered; during flowering it can withstand light frosts without consequences for the crop. Berries without bitterness, fragrant, weighing up to 1 g, sweet and sour taste, elongated form with a characteristic whitish coating. Crop begin to collect in the second or third decade of June.
- Strawberry- another sort of honeysuckle of early ripening, selection of the South Ural Research Institute of Fruit and Vegetable Production. Shrubs are high-yielding with strong shoots, up to 2 meters high, resistant to freezing, prefer partial shade or sun, they are not capricious in care. Berries weighing up to 2 g, when ripe for a long time, are kept on the branches, very sweet with strawberry aroma.
- Dove- edible variety with good yield. With an adult bush under favorable conditions, you can collect about 2 kg of fruit. The berries are elongated, reaching a mass of up to 1.6 g, dark blue with a characteristic whitish coating, a thin skin and delicate aromatic pulp. The taste is sweet and sour with piquant light bitteress, they appear by the end of June or the beginning of July, they do not crumble for a long time from the bush.
- Serotina- curly honeysuckle, decorative, blooms with beautiful fragrant flowers, then they turn into red fruits. Flowering begins in June-August, and continues even until September-October, if you remove the inflorescences that are drying out on time and do not allow the fruits to form. The aroma is subtle, reminiscent of a lime one, in the evening the fragrance is felt stronger.
- Liana- can reach 3-4 meters in height, with an annual gain of up to a meter, planted with a support. For the winter, the shoots are carefully released from the support, laid out on the ground, covered with spruce leaves and sprinkled with a thick layer of dry leaves.
- Volkhov- Honeysuckle is edible. Variety of average yield: up to 1.5 kg from a bush. Berries with a strong peel weighing up to 0.8 g, reach a length of up to 1.7 cm, do not taste bitter, fragrant, have a very tender aftertaste, reminiscent of strawberries. In the care is not capricious, frost-resistant, likes partial shade and regular root watering.
How to plant honeysuckle and care for her
Honeysuckle belongs to unpretentious cultures, but still requires some attention. She prefers a moist, well-warmed, fertile soil, but the lower twigs should be in the shade. Bushes must be protected from the wind.The soil suits any, except sandy. Do not land in areas where groundwater is close to the surface.
If the seedling is open (without a lump of earth), the root system, then it is better to plant it in early autumn. At this time, the growth of shoots in plants stops, there comes a period of rest. If the seedling has closed roots, then during the whole growing season.
The maximum growth of bushes, if not cut, reach to the age of seven, the average length of about 2 m. At this time it is recommended to thin, cut the dried, lying on the ground and broken branches. Honeysuckle is not a currant, it does not require strict pruning, but it does not tolerate frequencies.
Each adult bush can reach a diameter of up to 2 meters, it can grow up to 15 skeletal brushes.
Step plan landing
- 4 days prior to planting, dig out the square holes (40x40x40 cm) with a distance between them of 1.5-2 m for the short stature varieties, and 2.5-3 m for the tall ones.
- In a pit lay any drainage layer (crushed stone, shards, expanded clay, broken brick, etc.).
- Fill the pits with fertile soil mixed with two compost buckets, a kilogram of ash and 50 g of superphosphate. For sandy soil compost is taken about 3 buckets with the addition, if desired, from 4-5 kg of clay per 1 square meter.
- It is good to spill the wells with rain or separated water.
- Pour the earthen cone in the center of the hole, set the seedling gently on the top, carefully straighten the roots.
- Gently sprinkle the roots on the small portions with earth, leave the neck loose. Pour a large amount of water into the hole so that the filled earth is settled. If necessary, pour more soil.
- Mulch the ground around the trunk to retain moisture in the depth and attract earthworms to loosen the soil.
Pruning after planting should be only dry stems and twigs, located inside the crown, because the traditional pruning delays the development of the seedling and the onset of its fruiting.
Harvest can be collected in a couple of years, however, it will be small. But it is temporary, and over the years, depending on the variety, will reach 2 kg per bush.Honeysuckle - picky plant, it practically does not get sick and with proper care will please with a stable yield of up to 30 years or more.
In the autumn you need to thin out the crown of the dried branches, shading the plant. In the spring under each bush to bring organic matter, and when it begins to melt snow, feed it with nitrogen. With the advent of flowers, and then fruits, with an aqueous solution of ash, water the bushes. To prevent the formation of crusts along the trunk, the soil should be airy and allow the roots to breathe. Loosening should be done carefully, as the root system is close to the surface, and watered “under the root”.
How to propagate honeysuckle
The easiest way to propagate honeysuckle at home - a pruner in the spring cut into 30 cm tops from a bush, put a "bouquet" in the water and about a month later, when the rootlets appear, plant. For their faster appearance in the water, you can add special tools. The first harvest young planting will give in three years.
You can plant honeysuckle and seeds, but this method is time consuming, and takes a lot of time. Another one of its minus - there is no guarantee the preservation of varietal qualities.Honeysuckle is also propagated by cuttings and division of adult bushes. To obtain good yields, several varieties should be planted next to each other for mutual pollination.
A distinctive feature of honeysuckle from other berry crops - it gives growth only until the beginning of summer, and then "hibernates." Therefore, it can be transplanted (with a clod of earth) from July to frosts. In the spring, it wakes up early, even before the soil is completely thawed, and it does not tolerate replanting.
Fighting diseases and pests
Honeysuckle has a good "immunity", the plant rarely gets sick. The main enemies are aphids and honeysuckle. To get rid of them, it is enough to treat the shrubs with special preparations immediately after harvesting.
In winter, plants can be affected by mice. Spraying the bushes with 3% copper sulfate makes the branches “tasteless” for rodents, and serves as a preventive measure for fungal diseases.
Benefit and harm of honeysuckle
Honeysuckle can be considered a universal product, it helps with various diseases. Its berries, rich in trace elements, vitamin C and many others, ripen before anyone else and help the body in the fight against spring vitamin deficiency.
The berries of the plant are not only tasty, but also useful, their juice helps alleviate the condition of patients with burns and ulcers, and the decoction will help to keep the pressure normal, just do not drink it before going to bed, as it has a strong diuretic effect.
A decoction made from flowers and leaves can be treated for a cold. Honeysuckle will help with gastrointestinal diseases, for example, it can fight ulcers and gastritis, eliminate capillary fragility, clean blood vessels and rejuvenate the body. And rubbed with sugar, it will be for the body vitamin feed during the autumn-winter period.
Harm and contraindications
There are no serious contraindications for honeysuckle berries, it should not be eaten, and should not be given to young children. Rarely, some people may experience individual intolerance, which is manifested by itching, redness, skin rashes, muscle spasms, indigestion. The golden rule is that everything needs a measure.
Jam in multicore made from honeysuckle
Try to make a recipe for jam in a pressure cooker or a slow cooker from honeysuckle with red currant juice and tea rose petals.
- Honeysuckle - 1 kg;
- Sugar - 1 kg;
- Petals - 200 g;
- Currant juice - 200 ml.
- Put the mode "Frying" and cook syrup from juice and sugar.
- At honeysuckle refined taste, pink petals will help to add interesting shades to it. Pour honeysuckle into syrup, wrap the petals in gauze, put in a slow cooker, close the lid.
- Turn off the heat after 5 minutes, leave the lid closed, let the jam roast for another hour.
- Pour into small jars, close tight lids. Check tightness: carefully, so as not to burn yourself, turn the jar over, if there are no bubbles, everything is fine. Cover the jam, let cool.
It turns out amazing beauty jam: dark blue mass of jelly, in which, like bright sparkles, red berries of honeysuckle. The aroma of roses, after opening the lid, still left no one indifferent. How pleasant in the winter evening, for a cup of fragrant tea with this magic jam, to remember the summer.
We look forward to the arrival of spring, the appearance in the garden of the first greenery, berries and fruits, but they are still far away.It is here that the honeysuckle will help out, which begins to bloom as soon as the snow melts, and for the care and care in June will bestow fragrant and healthy berries.
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